We’ve all been in a situation where it feels like one person isn’t pulling their weight. Whether it’s a class project, a group presentation, or a simple game of tug of war, it can not only be frustrating, but it can also impact the end result.
When this happens, what you’re witnessing is actually a phenomenon called “social loafing.” One site defines social loafing as “the tendency of individuals to put forth less effort when they’re part of a group.”
One of the key strategies to reduce the potential for social loafing is to create smaller groups or teams. Make it easier for team member’s work to be seen and supported. Smaller groups also enable individuals to form relationships and build a cohesive unit – all attributes that encourage individuals to contribute.
So, what happens when you factor in today’s working environment with the global pandemic forcing companies to send employees home to quickly adapt to a fully digital culture in which they were expected to collaborate in new and sometimes challenging ways?
There is not a simple answer, but one thing we feel certain about – it’s now more important than ever to ensure everyone has the tools they need to participate and succeed.
What causes social loafing?
Before we dive into preventative measures, let’s start by looking at some of the reasons social loafing occurs.
- Goal achievability and value: How attainable is what you’re working towards? If it seems impossible to one of the group members, they’ll be more likely to slack off, thinking their efforts are futile. Further to that, what is the point of the project? If achieving the goal feels meaningless, members may also be less likely to contribute.
It often comes down to motivation. People who are less motivated by a task (because it’s too hard or seems silly) may tend to become social loafers when part of a group.
- Group size: The more people there are in the group, the easier it is to hide! In small groups, people are more likely to feel that their efforts are vital to the project and will therefore contribute more. The larger the group, however, the less individual effort people will extend, thinking they can get away with it.
- It’s too easy: If the goal of the project seems easy to achieve and only requires minimal effort, that’s what you’ll get. You want to find the balance between something that will challenge the group, but not be so difficult that people give up before they’ve started.
- Skill differential: If certain members of the group believe they aren’t as skilled as their teammates, they’re more likely to let others do the work. This can also be seen as a lack of confidence as they may not see themselves as being able to contribute in a meaningful way.
- “The Sucker Effect”: When one or two people in the group start to slack off, others might notice and then also step back, in order to avoid being the person stuck with all the work. Hence, no one wants to be the “sucker” that’s left carrying the team single-handedly.
Because people assume that their efforts don’t matter and that they’re not personally responsible, they also assume that someone else will be the one to take action.
Don’t be Lenny the Loafer
Don’t let social loafing catch you off guard. Using the example of Lenny (a fictional character, we promise), we’ll demonstrate some of the signs of social loafing to watch out for.
Lenny is the guy in the group that seems just a little bit detached, even from day one. He doesn’t volunteer to take on tasks; he looks at the ground when everyone in the group is sharing their ideas; and when he does volunteer, it’s always the easiest option.
Lenny may also be new to the group or insecure in his skill sets, which causes him to take a step back. Or, he may not believe in the value of the project, so then is choosing to actively not participate (assuming he can get away with it).
Unsurprisingly, one of the biggest effects of social loafing is an overall decrease in productivity and a drop in morale. It can also cause the people who don’t engage in social loafing to burnout.
If you’re like most people, the example of Lenny is probably bringing up painful memories of high school group projects.
5 ways to prevent social loafing
Fortunately, social loafing – although common – does not have to be inevitable. There are steps you can take using online tools and resources to help prevent the issues or behaviors that often lead to social loafing.
Create an online space to collaborate
Project plan using an online project room, in which you can outline the goals and assign tasks for each team member. It’s important to choose the right people for the right jobs and play to people’s strengths so no one feels like they can’t do what they’ve been assigned.
You can also use the team room to encourage team members to share updates, ask questions, exchange ideas, and work together on larger team goals or initiatives.
Enable social features on your department/team space on your intranet so everyone has an equal opportunity to participate. Use commenting and @mentioning to add a layer of visibility, but also keep things fun.
Keep communication open
Make sure you’re checking in with each person in the group to make sure they understand the project and why it matters. Allow for private communications so team members can voice concerns at an individual level and not involve everyone unnecessarily.
Acknowledge and celebrate when people in the group contribute. You can do this privately or, even better, use your Intranet to praise them publicly. If they feel proud of their work and their contribution, it’s likely they’ll want to take on more!
5. Promote a teamwork culture
Create a space where everyone sees the value of working together. As cheesy as “teamwork makes the dream work” may sound, it’s essential to cultivate a culture in which everyone is working towards a common goal and knows that their individual contributions are important and unique to the success of the project.
Make sure everyone on your team is working toward the same goal. Learn how with these 7 teamwork strategies.
Make sure everyone plays a part
Regardless of where your employees are working, we know they work best when they work together. Make sure everyone has the right tools for the job and support they need to succeed. When everyone pulls their weight, goals turn into accomplishments.
Learn more about tools you can use to help mitigate social loafing and promote teamwork at igloosoftware.com/collaboration.